Vijnana Chitravali

Vinjana-chitravali ( illustrated science of Veda) is a collection of illustrations and charts drawn by Pandit Madhusudan Ojha and Pandit Motilal Shastri in their many works. This volume is edited by Shastriji. These illustrations and drawings have been drawn from Shatapatha Brahmana, Gitavijnana-bhashya, Ishopanishath, Sradhvijnana and other works.

विज्ञानचित्रावली में शतपथब्राह्मण, गीताविज्ञानभाष्यभूमिका, ईशोपनिषत्, छान्दोग्योपनिषद्, श्राद्धविज्ञान, संस्कृत एवं सभ्यता नामक ग्रन्थ में प्रयुक्त चित्रों का संग्रह है। इसमें अच्छे- अच्छे चित्र बने हुए हैं। जिसमें यजमानपात्री, पत्नीपात्री, इडापात्री, ब्रह्मचमसः, प्राशित्रहरणम्, अन्तर्धानकटम् अदि हैं। प्रत्येक चित्र के नीचे उसका हिन्दी में अर्थ और उसकी उपयोगिता का वर्णन है।

Srishti (Creation)

This illustration, drawn by Pandit Motilal Shastri, represents the process of creation and five dimensions of the universe.

The five orbs represent the five dimensions of the universe and in these dimensions reside the process of creation itself.

The first orb is that of Prajapati which is infused with prana (life-force), is svayambhu (created by itself) and abhu (the unchanging core of every existence).

Prajapati is the fundamental source of creation, and the first dimension of the universe.

Prajapati is the first `individual`. The term `individual` refers to padartha (in Sanskrit) or substance. Prana (life-force), mana (mind) and vak (sound) reside in Prajapati. These three elements are the key to creation. Mana is the fount of desire, prana spurs efforts and an interplay of the two leads vak to transform itself into all created entities.

These interactions take place in two ways. One way is when the individual entities blend into each other, destroying each other and creating in the process a new entity. The second way is when the objects blend in a manner when their individual qualities are not destroyed and a new entity with these qualities is born.

Prajapati is the first supraphysical individual to evolve from the interaction of mana, prana and wak. Every individual in the universe is a Prajapati[1]. Innumerable Prajapatis constitute the universe.

Prajapati is Brahma (indicated in the right side of the first orb in the illustration). Brahma is the source of all creations. The universe is the totality of all that has been created and this totality has evolved from one source or foundation which is Brahma.

Brahma is the sum of two elements—abhu and abhva. Abhu has existed eternally, has no form and do not change. It is pervasive and exists in all living and non-living beings.  The second element emerges from abhu itself and is known as abhva. Abhu is known by many names. Since it is eternal, it is known as amruta. It is called brahman because it is the tattva or essence which forms the observed universe. It is called satya or truth because it is present at all time. It is rasa or nectar because it is the fuel of existence, without which nothing can exist. When rasa is infused with bala or power, Creation comes into motion. While rasa is abhu, what emerges from its interaction with bala is abhva.

Thus, we can see that the universe is made of two components—one which is eternal and unchanging (abhu, satya, rasa, brahman et al) and one which is transitory and continuing (abhva, bala, mrityu et al).

But there is more to Prajapati which needs to be understood. According to the Veda vijnana (vedic science), Prajapati is a 16-dimensional individual. Prajapati comprises avayaya, akshara and kshara. Each of these have five facets. The 15 facets of these elements rest on the foundation of paratpara, the 16th dimension of Prajapati. Paratpara is that state of rasa in which all balas are incorporated.[2]

Two of the components, akshara and kshara, are relevant for our understanding of this illustration. Akshara is the element which is indestructible. It is the incidental cause of creation. It has five forms—Brahma, Vishnu, Indra, Agni and Soma. (depicted on the right side of the illustration). These five individuals are related (in that order) to prana, apa, vak, annada (the one who consumes food)  and anna (food). Together, they are responsible for the creation, establishment, growth and destruction of this universe.

Kshara is the material cause of creation. Everything gets created with kshara. Akshara resides within kshara; although kshara is ever changing, askhara is that part which remains unchanged and unmodified. Like a pot exists in clay.

The illustration depicts akshara on its right side and kshara in the middle.

Of the five dimensions, the last four –parameshthi, surya, chandrama and prithvi--are termed as the creations. Creations happen with the fusion of two entities, agni and soma; this process is known as yajna. This process of creation begins with parameshthi, considered as the second dimension of the universe. It is another Prajapati which orbits around Brahma and is filled with apa (water). Some seer scientists have proposed that all that we see in the universe is watery and since this apa or water is located above the sun, it is called parameshthi (`param` means `higher` or `superior`). Water is the source of all individuals, animate and inanimate. This yajna is Vishnu (depicted in the illustration in the second rung).

The region of the sun comes after parameshthi. Like svayambhu is Brahma filled with prana and parameshthi is Vishnu filled with apa, surya is Indra permeated with vak. Surya has three parts—solar system or dyauloka, parameshthi and svayambhu.  Antariksha (interspace) exists between the earth and the sun.

Then comes the region of chandrama, the supraphysical universe with the moon as the centre. The moon is permeated with soma, which nourishes all vegetation.

Prithvi is the fifth region in the cosmic order. Prithvi is the seat of agni which is both enduring and transitory. The planet is perishable while the supraphysical energy emanating therefrom is the enduring aspect. But prithvi has both agni and soma and the interaction of both is yajna.

The left hand side of the illustration depicts Param Prajapati and four Pratima Prajapatis. Brahma is the Parama or Supreme Prajapati. The four other Prajapatis born from this Pratima Prajapati are known as Pratima Prajapati. These Pratima Prajapatis reside in each other—Parameshthi resides in Svayambhu, Surya resides in Parameshthi, Prithvi in Surya and Chadrama in Prithvi. These Prajapatis in union cause creation to happen.

[1] Prajapatirevedam sarvamsrijat yadidam kinch—Shatpatha Brahmana 6:1:2:11


विज्ञानचित्रावली में अनेक सुन्दर चित्रों के माध्यम से  वैदिक विज्ञान के विभिन्न पहलुओं का विश्लेषण किया गया है। चित्र देखने में  छोटा लगता है परन्तु वह अनेक महत्त्वपूर्ण विषयों को एक साथ बताता है। इस चित्र में सृष्टि प्रतिपादक जितने पारिभाषिक शब्द आये हैं उनके स्वरूप को यहाँ प्रस्तुत किया जा रहा है।

इस चित्र के दायें भाग में पाँच तत्त्वों का वर्णन है। ये हैं- ब्रह्मा, विष्णु, इन्द्र, अग्नि और सोम। ये पाँचों  तत्त्व अक्षर नाम से जाने जाते हैं। पं. ओझा ने इसे अक्षर कहा है।[i] जिसका कभी नाश नहीं होता है वह अक्षर कहलाता है और जिसका नाश होता है वह क्षर है।

इस चित्र के मध्यभाग में क्षर का स्वरूप है। ये क्रमशः क्षर नाम से हैं- प्राण, आप् (जल), वाक्,  अन्नाद (अन्न को खानेवाला) और अन्न । इसी को विकार-क्षर कहा जाता है।[ii] प्राण ब्रह्मा का विकार है, आप् विष्णु का विकार है, वाक् इन्द्र का विकार है, अन्नाद अग्नि का विकार है और अग्नि सोम का विकार है।  ये पाँच विकार-क्षर अलग-अलग रहते हैं और अक्षर के साथ जब मिश्रण हो जाता है  तो एक तीसरा रूप  बन जाता है जो यज्ञ-क्षर कहलाता है। ये पाँचों मिश्रित क्षर क्रमशः स्वयम्भू, परमेष्ठी, सूर्य, पृथिवी और चन्द्रमा हैं। इसी क्षर को पं. शास्त्री जी ने यज्ञ-क्षर नाम से बताया है।[iii] शतपथब्राह्मण में कहा गया है कि परमेष्ठी आपो-मय (जलस्वरूप) है।[iv] सूर्य का वाङ्-मय रूप है।[v] पृथिवी का अग्नि से सम्बन्ध है और अग्नि ही अन्नाद है[vi] और चन्द्रमा अन्न है।[vii]

चित्र के बायें भाग में परमप्रजापति और प्रतिमा प्रजापति का निरूपण किया गया है। प्राणमय स्वयम्भू है। वही आभु तत्त्व भी है।  जो सब जगह रहता है वह आभु है। उसी को परम प्रजापति कहते हैं। परम प्रजापति का अर्थ है जिससे सृष्टि होती है। जो मूल तत्त्व है। जिसका कोई कारण नहीं है। जो सृष्टि का आदि है। प्रतिमा प्रजापति के बारे में पण्डित मोतीलाल शास्त्री लिखते हैं कि  स्वयम्भू प्रजापति में परमेष्ठी आदि चार प्रतिमा प्रजापति रहते हैं। स्वयम्भू में परमेष्ठी, परमेष्ठी में सूर्य, सूर्य में पृथिवी, पृथिवी में चन्द्रमा रहता है। उस परम प्रजापति में संस्था (आकार) बनाकर चारों प्रजापति रहते हैं। अत एव इन्हें प्रतिमा प्रजापति कहते हैं।[viii]

 गीता में भगवान् कहते हैं कि मैं क्षर से अतीत और अक्षर से उत्तम हूँ। इससे लोक-वेद में 'पुरुषोत्तम' नाम से प्रसिद्ध हूँ।[ix] वैदिकविज्ञान में ब्राह्मण ग्रन्थों के आधार पर अक्षर और क्षर को आधार बना कर सृष्टि को बतलाने वाला यह चित्र है। इस चित्र के द्वारा संपूर्ण सृष्टि का दिग्दर्शन कराया गया है।

सन्दर्भ :

[i] (क) इत्थं मायावरुद्धानां बलानां भेदतोऽक्षराः।

ब्रह्मेन्द्र-विष्ण्वग्नि-सोमा अमी पञ्च निरूपिताः॥ ब्रह्मसमन्वय पृ. १३४, श्लोक ६१; पृ. १४७, श्लोक ४१; पृ. १४१, श्लोक ४४; ब्रह्मचतुष्पदी पृ. १२; पृ. ८६;  ब्रह्मसिद्धान्त पृ. १७२, श्लोक २९०; पृ. १०७ गद्यभाग; विज्ञानविद्युत् पृ. १०

[ii] प्रतिष्ठाकृष्ण रहस्य, पृ.२७

[iii] परमेष्ठीकृष्ण रहस्य, पृ.६

[iv] स आपोऽभवत् परमेष्ठी। शतपथब्राह्मणम् ११.६.१६, द्वितीयभागः पृ. ११३३

[v] सा या सा वागसौ स आदित्यः। स एष मृत्युः। तद्यत् किंचार्वाचीनमादित्यात् सर्वे तन्मृत्युनाप्तम्। (पं. मोतीलाल शास्त्री, सत्यकृष्णरहस्य पृ. १२६) शतपथब्राह्मण भाग २ पृ. १०९६

[vi] अन्नादः एव अग्निः। शतपथब्राह्मणम् ११.६.१९, द्वितीयभागः पृ. ११३४

[vii] अन्नं सोमः। शतपथब्राह्मणम् ११.६.१९, द्वितीयभागः पृ. ११३४

[viii] परमेष्ठी कृष्ण रहस्य पृ. २९

[ix] यस्मात् क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः।

अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः।। गीता १५.१८

ग्रन्थसूची :


परमेष्ठीकृष्ण रहस्य

प्रतिष्ठाकृष्ण रहस्य